Mesh Networking technology is commonly used in building automation applications such as lighting, security, HVAC, industrial control as well as machine communication and medical monitoring. There are two types of mesh protocols, at 2.4 GHz, routed (directed) meshes based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard like Zigbee and Thread. And there are flood mesh protocols based on the Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh 1.0 standard. Additionally, since BLE is currently available in all mobile phones, gateways are not a requirement in this type of topology.
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